The different types of 501(c)3 offer you great options in how you’d like to make your impact, so it’s important to understand the characteristics of each before filing.
So, here’s the breakdown…
3 Types of 501(c)3 Nonprofit Organizations
1. Public Charity:
This is the most common form out of all the different types of 501(c)3 nonprofit organizations that exists. This is what most people associate with the term “nonprofit.” Churches, libraries, museums, hospitals and private schools qualify as public charity nonprofits.
Others include service-oriented nonprofits that rely on fundraising for more than one-third of their operating budgets. The United Way, Special Olympics and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals are all examples of service-oriented public charities.
A public charity is different from a private foundation in that the former is typically financially supported by a broad base of entities such as foundations, individuals, and government units.
Public charities are eligible to receive tax-deductible donations from individuals (up to 50% of the donor’s income) and corporations (up to 50% of net profits).
2. Private Foundation:
A private foundation is another type of 501(c)3 nonprofit organization, which receive nearly all of their financial support from a single private individual or entity, as opposed to a public charity, which receives at least one-third of their donations from broader sources, whether public or private.
Often a private foundation invests a significant pool of capital into a fund, using this income to give grants that further the charitable work of other organizations. A private foundation that operates solely as a grant-making organization does not have active programs is called a "non-operating" foundation, while a private foundation which runs its own programs to deliver goods or serves to the target community in need is called an "operating foundation" (see below).
Donations to 501(c)3 private foundations are still tax-deductible for individuals (up to 30% of the donor’s income). Examples of 501(c)3 private foundations include the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Ford Foundation.
3. Private Operating Foundation:
Private operating foundations are similar to private foundations to a large extent but they also have active programs like those found in a public charity. For this reason, many consider these foundations to be a hybrid between public charities and private foundations.
A private operating foundation is the least common of the three primary types of 501(c)(3) nonprofit organizations. It finances its own programs instead of sponsoring outside charitable activities. Popular private operating foundation endeavors include those that address the needs of low-income communities, support research for diseases and cures, and manage the operation of museums and libraries.
IRS regulations on private operating foundations are similar to those on private foundations and donations are still tax-deductible. A few examples of a private operating foundation are the J. Paul Getty Trust and the Scoliosis Research and Education Foundation.
And there you have it! I hope you find these distinctions useful on your journey to bringing your mission to life and obtaining 501(c)3 tax-exempt status.
If you know the type of 501(c)3 nonprofit organization you’re launching and would like to obtain your tax-exempt status quick and hassle free, then click here for more details on our Instant Nonprofit Service.